A metal money.
The earliest metallic money consisted of bars of various shapes with a certain weight. Hence various names of monetary units that reflect weight class: pound, livre, mark. With the development of market relations of the metals to mint coins with the statutory form and weight. And the beginning of the XX century were installed gold monometallism (the leading role belonged to the gold).
Metal money is divided into full and defective, which is associated with the content of the noble metal. Full is when the nominal value of money corresponds to the content of the noble metal. This kind of money is a universal equivalent. Defective and money was minted as a bargaining chip and their nominal value was higher than the value of the contained metal. Under the gold standard, defective coins were minted of silver, and nowadays aluminium and various alloys.
In the 70-ies of XX century there was a so-called denomination of gold and it had ceased to perform the function of world money. Thus it supplanted, these types of as credit money and paper.
Historically they appeared as substitutes for gold and silver coins. They were produced by the state and by themselves had no value, but it was mandatory for payments and settlements. Ie endowed by the state compulsory course and were issued to cover the budget deficit of the state, thus performing the role of payment and purchasing means. Produces paper money, the Ministry of Finance or the Central Bank. The government uses the printing press to cover its expenses or in the case of the Central Bank provides loans to the state to cover the existing deficit of the state budget.
The nature of paper money is inherent instability. The most common was the depreciation of paper money — inflation, which is due to their excessive issuance.
When the trade relationship in the world has become pervasive, an extension of credit in the economy has led to the fact that universal credit was money. In General, credit money is a claim to future decorated in a special way the debt (usually in the form of securities). Lending money to bear the risk of default requirements.
Credit money was produced in different forms. These types of money are: bill, banknote, Bank deposits, cheque, electronic money, plastic cards.
With the automation of banking operations and with the wide use of computers emerged electronic money. Electronic money is money that is stored on electronic Bank accounts. With the help of electronic money is the vast majority of interbank transactions.
These types of money exist today.